Title: Lipids in Pathophysiology and Development of the Membrane Lipid Therapy: New Bioactive Lipids
Journal; Membranes (Basel)
Date: Nov 2021
Authors; Manuel Torres, Sebastià Parets, Javier Fernández-Díaz, Roberto Beteta-Göbel, Raquel Rodríguez-Lorca,Ramón Román,Victoria Lladó, Catalina A. Rosselló, Paula Fernández-García and Pablo V. Escribá.
Abstract; Membranes are mainly composed of a lipid bilayer and proteins, constituting a checkpoint for the entry and passage of signals and other molecules. Their composition can be modulated by diet, pathophysiological processes, and nutritional/pharmaceutical interventions. In addition to their use as an energy source, lipids have important structural and functional roles, e.g., fatty acyl moieties in phospholipids have distinct impacts on human health depending on their saturation, carbon length, and isometry. These and other membrane lipids have quite specific effects on the lipid bilayer structure, which regulates the interaction with signaling proteins. Alterations to lipids have been associated with important diseases, and, consequently, normalization of these alterations or regulatory interventions that control membrane lipid composition have therapeutic potential. This approach, termed membrane lipid therapy or membrane lipid replacement, has emerged as a novel technology platform for nutraceutical interventions and drug discovery. Several clinical trials and therapeutic products have validated this technology based on the understanding of membrane structure and function. The present review analyzes the molecular basis of this innovative approach, describing how membrane lipid composition and structure affects protein-lipid interactions, cell signaling, disease, and therapy (e.g., fatigue and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, tumor, infectious diseases).